Publications on NDEs

Articles on Near-Death Experiences by the Researchers of the Division of Perceptual Studies:

NDE84. Near-Death Experiences and Posttraumatic Growth, by Drs. Surbhi Khanna and Bruce Greyson. (The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, Vol. 203, 749-755, 2015). (pdf)

NDE83. Electromagnetic Phenomena Reported by Near-death Experiencers, by Drs. Bruce Greyson, Mitchel Liester, Lee Kinsey, Steve Alsum, and Glen Fox. (Journal of Near-Death Studies, 33(4), 213-243, Summer, 2015). (pdf)

NDE82. Western Scientific Approaches to Near-Death Experiences, by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Humanities, 2015, Vol. 4, 775-796, doi:10.3390/h4040775; www.mdpi.com/journal/humanities). (pdf)

NDE81. Epistemological implications of near-death experiences and other non-ordinary mental expressions: Moving beyond the concept of altered states of consciousness, by Drs. Enrico Facco, Christian Agillo, and Bruce Greyson. (Medical Hypotheses, published online, April 2015, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2015.04.004 ). (pdf)

NDE80. Using Computational Linguistics to Understand Near-Death Experiences: Concurrent Validity for the Near Death Experience Scale, by Rense Lange. Bruce Greyson, and James Houran (Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice, Vol. 2 (1), 79-89, APA, Winter 2015). (pdf)

NDE79. Daily spiritual experiences before and after near-death experiences, by Drs. Surbhi Khanna and Bruce Greyson.  (Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 6(4), 302–309, 2014). (pdf)

NDE78. Distressing near-death experiences: the basics, by Nancy Evans Bush and Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Missouri Medicine, 111(5), 372-376, 2014). (pdf)

NDE77. Almost 40 years investigating near-death experiences: an overview of mainstream scientific journals by Drs. A. Sleutjes, A. Moreira-Almeida and B. Greyson. (The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 202 (11), 833-836, November 2014). (pdf)

NDE76. A comparative analysis of Japanese and Western NDEs by Drs. Masayuki Ohkado and Bruce Greyson. (Journal of Near-Death Studies, 32(4), 187-198, Summer, 2014). (pdf)

NDE75. Near-death experiences and spiritual well-being, by Drs. Surbhi Khanna and Bruce Greyson. (Journal of Religion and Health, 53:1605-1615, 2014, published online: April 2013 DOI 10.1007/s10943-013-9723-0).  (pdf)

NDE74. AWARE—AWAreness during REsuscitation—A prospective study,  by Drs Sam Parnia, Bruce Greyson, et al. (Journal of Resuscitation, 85: 1799-1805, 2014).  (pdf)

NDE73. Congruence between Near-Death and Mystical Experience, by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 24:298–310, 2014). (pdf)

NDE72. Spiritual transformation following near-death experiences, by Drs. Bruce Greyson and Surbhi Khanna. (Spirituality in Clinical Practice, 1:43-55, 2014). (pdf)

NDE71. Surge of neurophysiological activity in the dying brain, by Drs. Bruce Greyson, Edward Kelly, and Ross Dunseath. (Proceedings of the National Academy of the Sciences, 110:E4405, 2013). (pdf)

NDE70. An overview of near-death experiences, by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Missouri Medicine, 110(6),  471-477, 2013). (pdf)

NDE69. Differentiating spiritual and psychotic experiences: sometimes a cigar is just a cigar, by Dr. Bruce Greyson, (Journal of Near-Death Studies, 32(3), 123-126, Spring 2014). (pdf)

NDE68. ‘There is nothing paranormal about near-death experiences’ revisited: Comment on Mobbs and Watt, by Dr. Bruce Greyson, J.M. Holden, and Pimm Van Lommel, (Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16, 445, 2012). (pdf)

NDE67. [Letter] Response to “Some Basic Problems with the Term ‘Near-Death Experience’”, by Dr. Bruce Greyson (Journal of Near-Death Studies, 29(4), 467-470, Summer 2011). (pdf)

NDE66. Meaningful coincidences and near-death experiences, by Dr. Bruce Greyson (Psychiatric Annals 41:12, e1-e5, December, 19, 2011). (pdf)

NDE65. Cosmological implications of near-death experiences, by Dr. Bruce Greyson (Journal of Cosmology, 14, 4684-4696, 2011). (pdf)

NDE64. [Letter] Hypercapnia and hypokalemia in near-death experiences, by Dr. Bruce Greyson(Critical Care, 14:420, 2010). (pdf)

NDE63.  Equivalência semântica da versão em português da Escala de Experiência de Quase-Morte [Semantic equivalence of the Portuguese version of the Near-Death Experience Scale] by Serralta, F. B., Cony, F., Cembranel, Z., Greyson, B., and Szobot, C. M. (Psico-USF: Revista Semestral da Area da Psicologia da Universidade São Francisco, 15, 35-46, 2010). (pdf)

NDE62. Implications of near-death experiences for a postmaterialist psychology, by Dr. Bruce Greyson (Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 2, 37-45, 2010).  This article describes NDE features that challenge materialist reductionism and support a new model of consciousness that is more compatible with contemporary physics. (pdf)

OTH23. Seeing deceased persons not known to have died: “Peak in Darien”experiences, by Dr. Bruce Greyson.  (Anthropology and Humanism 35: 159-171, 2010). (pdf)

NDE61. Terminal lucidity in patients with chronic schizophrenia and dementia: A survey of the literature, by Michael Nahm and Dr. Bruce Greyson (Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 197, 942-944, 2009). This article summarizes 81 published case reports of the unexpected and unexplained return of mental clarity and memory shortly before death, in patients who had lost their mental faculties for many years as a result of chronic schizophrenia or dementia. (pdf)

NDE60. Articles of interest, by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (2008). [Review of “The Near-Death Experience: A Cerebellar Method to Protect Body and Soul – Lessons from the Iboga Healing Ceremony in Gabon” by Strubelt, S., and Maas, U.]. (Journal of Scientific Exploration, 22, 447-448, 2008).   This letter to the editor critiques an article by Süster Strubelt and Uwe Maas comparing NDEs with ritual trances induced by Iboga in Gabonese healing rituals. Strubelt and Maas proposed a hypothetical neurobiological mechanism to explain Iboga intoxication that has little if any relevance to NDEs. (pdf)

NDE59. The near-death experience [Letter], by Dr. Bruce Greyson, (Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 14(3), 14, 2008). This letter to the editor critiques an article by Süster Strubelt and Uwe Maas comparing NDEs with ritual trances induced by Iboga in Gabonese healing rituals. Strubelt and Maas proposed a hypothetical neurobiological mechanism to explain Iboga intoxication that has little if any relevance to NDEs. (pdf)

NDE58. Visualizing out-of-body experience in the brain [Letter], by Drs. Bruce Greyson, Sam Parnia, and P. Fenwick, (New England Journal of Medicine, 358, 855-856, 2008).  This letter to the editor critiques a report by Dirk De Ridder and colleagues describing a sense of disembodiment induced by electrical brain stimulation, which was quite different phenomenologically from spontaneous out-of-body experiences. (pdf)

NDE57. Ian Stevenson’s contributions to near-death studies, by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Journal of Scientific Exploration, 22, 54-63, 2008).  This article reviews Ian Stevenson’s contributions to near-death studies, including his work on the phenomenology of NDE, their implications for the survival question, and research methodology. (pdf)

NDE56. Response to Augustine’s “Does paranormal perception occur in near-death experiences?” [Letter], by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Journal of Near-Death Studies, 26, 67-70, 2007).  This article responds to Keith Augustine’s critique of accurate out-of-body perception during NDEs, which largely ignored the published literature supporting the reality of OBE perception. ( pdf)

NDE55. Ian Stevenson [Letter], by Dr. Bruce Greyson, (Skeptical Inquirer, 31(5), 67, 2007). (pdf)

NDE54. The NDE Scale [Letter], by Bruce Greyson (Skeptical Inquirer, 31(5), 67, 2007). (pdf)

NDE53. Articles of interest, by Dr. Bruce Greyson. [Review of “Stimulating illusory own-body perceptions,” by Blanke, O., Ortigue, S., Landis, T., and Seeck, M., and of “Does the arousal system contribute to near death experience?” by Nelson, K. R., Mattingly, M., Lee, S. A., and Schmitt, F. A.]. (Journal of Scientific Exploration, 21, 213-215, 2007). This review critiques the study by Olaf Blanke and colleagues that confused illusions of feeling out of the body induced by electrical brain stimulation with spontaneous out-of-body experiences, which share few similarities with the induced illusions and differ from them in important ways.  It also critiques  the research by Kevin Nelson and colleagues purporting to show a link between “REM intrusion” and NDEs, detailing problems in the methodology and interpretation of that study. (pdf)

NDE52. Commentary on “Cultural and physiological correlates undermining a survivalist interpretation of near-death experiences.” by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Journal of Near-Death Studies, 26, 127-145, 2007). This article responds to Keith Augustine’s critique of a transcendental interpretation of NDEs, acknowledging problems in NDE research methodology but offering data to rebut the mistaken assumptions and misinterpretations on which much of the criticism is based. (pdf)

NDE51. The Mystical Impact of Near-Death Experiences, by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Shift, 17, 8-13, 2007). The article reviews the spiritual transformative effects of NDEs, and studies of spirituality before and after NDEs. (pdf)

NDE50. Comments on “Does paranormal perception occur in near-death experiences?” by Dr. Bruce Greyson.  (Journal of Near-Death Studies, 25, 237-244, 2007). This article responds to Keith Augustine’s critique of studies of veridical perception in NDEs, acknowledging problems in NDE research methodology but offering data to rebut the mistaken assumptions and misinterpretations on which much of the criticism is based. (pdf)

NDE49. Near-death experiences: Clinical implications, by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Revista de Psiquiatria Clínica, 34, suppl 1, 49-57, 2007).  (available in English and in Portuguese). This literature review examines the evidence for and against proposed medical explanation for NDEs and their similarities to and differences from mental disorders; and data regarding changes in attitudes, beliefs, and values following NDEs, including problematic changes and recommended therapeutic interventions.(pdf)

NDE48. Consistency of Near-Death Experience Accounts Over Two Decades: Are Reports Embellished Over Time? by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Resuscitation, 73, 407-411, 2007). This article examines whether experiencers’ reports of their NDEs were embellished over a 20-year period, as measured by their scores on the standardized NDE Scale when they first reported their experiences and again two decades later. NDE reports did not change over this time period, and the differences in NDE Scale scores between the first and second administration was not related to the length of the intervening time interval. These data suggest that memories of NDEs are more stable than memories of other events, and that studying NDE that occurred years ago can yield valid information. (pdf)

NDE47. Failure to Elicit Near-Death Experiences in Induced Cardiac Arrest, by Dr. Bruce Greyson, Dr. Janice Holden, and Dr. Paul Mounsey. (Journal of Near-Death Studies, 25, 85-98, 2006).  This article describes a study attempting to test the accuracy of out-of-body perceptions during cardiac arrest induced during surgical implantation of automatic implantable cardioverters/defibrillators (ICDs), electrical devices that automatically detect cardiac arrest and administer an electrical shock to return the heart to normal rhythm.  In a series of 52 induced cardiac arrests, no patient reported having had a near-death or out-of-body experience.  The article discusses possible reasons that no NDEs occurred in these induced cardiac arrests. (pdf)

NDE47A. Dissociative and psychotic experiences in Brazilian Spiritist mediums [Letter], by A. Moreira-Almeida, F. L Neto, and Dr. Bruce Greyson, (Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 76, 57-58, 2006). This letter to the editor describes a study of dissociative and hallucinatory experiences reported by 115 Brazilian spiritist mediums.  These experiences, which include apparent communications with deceased entities, should not be considered pathological because they occur in the cultural context of a religious ritual and are associated with good social adjustment and mental health. (pdf)

NDE47B. Does the arousal system contribute to near-death experience?[Letter], by Dr. Bruce Greyson and J.P. Long (Neurology, 67, 2265, 2006).  The letter to the editor critiques the research by Kevin Nelson and colleagues purporting to show a link between “REM intrusion” and NDEs.  The Nelson study used an atypical sample of NDErs, an inappropriate comparison group, and different procedures for eliciting “REM intrusion” symptoms from the two groups that likely biased the results; and the authors drew conclusions not supported by their data and ignored data contradicting their conclusions. (pdf)

NDE46. Near-Death Experiences and Spirituality by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Zygon: Journal of Religion & Science, 41, 393-414, 2006).  This article reviews the similarities between NDEs and mystical experiences, the evidence for the lack of influence of prior religiosity or spirituality on NDEs, the evidence for the influence of NDEs on subsequent religiosity and spirituality, and the religious and spiritual implications of NDEs for humankind. (pdf)

NDE45. Do Prevailing Societal Models Influence Reports of Near-Death Experiences? A Comparison of Accounts Reported Before and After 1975 by Dr. Geena Athappilly, Dr. Bruce Greyson, & Dr. Ian Stevenson. (Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 194, 218-222, 2006).  This article compares the phenomenology of 24 NDEs that were reported prior to Dr. Raymond Moody’s introduction of the term “NDE” in 1975 with 24 recently reported NDEs, matched on relevant demographic and situational variables. Tunnel phenomena were reported more frequently in the recent NDEs, but 14 other features described by Moody were reported as frequently in the pre-1975 NDEs as they were in the recent cases. This consistency in NDEs reported before and after Moody described the “typical” NDE suggests that NDEs reports have not been substantially influenced by prevailing cultural models. (pdf)

NDE44.  Postcesarean Pulmonary Embolism, Sustained Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, Embolectomy, and Near-Death Experience by Dr. Alan Marty, Dr. Frank Hilton, Dr. Robert Spear, and Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Obstetrics & Gynecology, 106, 1153-1155, 2005).  This article describes the resuscitation of a woman whose heart stopped due to massive blood clots in her lungs after giving birth by cesarean section, and who later reported a profound NDE while her heart was stopped. (pdf)

NDE43.  “False Positive” Claims of Near-Death Experiences and “False Negative” Denials of Near-Death Experiences by Dr. Bruce Greyson.  (Death Studies, 29, 145-155, 2005).  This article evaluates “false positive” claims of people who say they have had NDEs even though their experiences do not meet research criteria for NDEs, and “false negative” denials of people who deny having had NDEs even though their experiences do meet research criteria for NDEs.  The experiences of “false positive” claimants and of “false negative” deniers differ from the experiences of “true positive” claimants who did have NDEs and of “true negative” deniers who did not have NDEs.  The frequencies of “false positive” claims and of “false negative” denials are influenced by prior knowledge of NDEs and other psychological factors. (pdf)

NDE42.  A Rasch Scaling Validation of a ‘Core’ Near-Death Experience by Dr. R. Lange , Dr. Bruce Greyson, and  Dr. J. Houran. ( British Journal of  Psychology, 95, 161-177, 2004).  This article validates Dr. Greyson’s NDE Scale using the Rasch statistical model, and demonstrates that the scale yields a unidimensional measure with interval-scaling properties.  With this scale, NDEs show a consistent pattern, unaffected by external variables or by intensity of the experience. (pdf)

NDE41.The Life Changes Inventory- Revised by Dr. Bruce Greyson  and Dr. Kenneth Ring.  ( Journal of Near-Death Studies , 23 (1), Fall 2004).  This article describes the historical development of Dr. Ring’s Life Changes Inventory, a self-rating instrument to measure value changes following an NDE, and presents an updated and revised version of the scale. (pdf)

NDE40. Auditory Hallucinations Following Near-Death Experiences by Dr. Bruce Greyson and Dr. Mitchell Liester. (Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 44:320-336, 2004). This article describes a survey on inner voices heard by NDErs following their experiences.  Experiencers’ attitudes toward these voices were overwhelmingly positive, unlike the overwhelmingly negative attitudes of psychiatric patients toward their hallucinations.  Inner voices are common following NDEs, and are highly valued by those who hear them. (pdf)

NDE39. Near-Death Experiences in a Psychiatric Outpatient Clinic Population by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Psychiatric Services, 54:1649-1651, 2003). This article describes a survey of NDEs among psychiatric outpatients. The incidence of NDEs in this sample was comparable to that in the general population, and patients with NDEs reported less psychological distress than did patients who had come close to death without having NDEs. (pdf)

NDE38. Incidence and Correlates of Near-Death Experiences in a Cardiac Care Unit by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (General Hospital Psychiatry 25:269-276, 2003.) This article describes a 3-year study of 1,595 patients hospitalized in a cardiac care unit, in which 10% of patients with cardiac arrest and 1% of patients with other heart problems had NDEs. (pdf)

NDE37. Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Following Near-Death Experiences by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 71:368-373, 2001).  This study finds that near-death experiencers report more intrusive memories of their close brush with death than do people who come close to death without NDEs, but that this does not reflect a clinical posttraumatic stress disorder.(pdf)

KEL13. Near-Death Experiences with Reports of Meeting Deceased People by Dr. Emily Williams Kelly. (Death Studies 25:229-249, 2001). This article compares the hypothesis that near-death experiences are evidence of survival after death with some nonsurvival interpretations of NDEs by examining reports of having seen deceased persons during an NDE. (pdf)

STE50. Can Experiences Near Death Furnish Evidence of Life after Death? by Dr. Emily Williams Kelly, Dr. Bruce Greyson, and Dr. Ian Stevenson. (Omega 40:513-519, 1999-2000). Single features of an experience near death do not suggest survival after death; they may have other explanations. The authors suggest, however, that when three features occur together, the experience does suggest survival. The features are: enhanced mental processes, seeing the physical body from another position in space, and paranormal perceptions. (pdf)

NDE35. Dissociation in People Who Have Had Near-Death Experiences: Out of Their Bodies or Out of Their Minds? by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (The Lancet 355:460-63, 2000). This study finds that near-death experiencers report more dissociation than do people who come close to death without NDEs, but this does not reflect a clinical dissociative disorder. (pdf)

NDE34. Defining Near-Death Experiences by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Mortality 4:7-19, 1999). A critical review of attempts to define near-death experiences. (pdf)

NDE33. The Incidence of Near-Death Experiences by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Medical  Psychiatry 1:92-99, 1998). A critical review of all the published estimates of the frequency of near-death experiences, summarizing the methodological problems and other reasons for discrepancies. (pdf)

NDE32. Biological Aspects of Near-Death Experiences by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Perspectives in Biology and Medicine. 42:14-32, 1998). A review of biological aspects of near-death experiences, including predisposing factors, phenomenology, and aftereffects; and a discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of psychological and physiological hypotheses that have been proposed as explanations of NDEs.(pdf)

STE46. Do Any Near-Death Experiences Provide Evidence for the Survival of Human Personality After Death? Relevant Features and Illustrative Case Reports by Dr. Emily Williams Cook, Dr. Bruce Greyson, and Dr. Ian Stevenson. ( Journal of Scientific Exploration 12:377-406, 1998).   Three features of NDEs that may support the survival hypothesis are discussed, followed by a presentation of 14 cases with some or all of these features. (pdf)

NDE30. The Near-Death Experience as a Focus of Clinical Attention by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 185:327-334, 1997). A discussion of differential diagnosis and treatment strategies for mental and emotional problems that are related to near-death experiences. (pdf)

STE42. Involuntary Memories During Severe Physical Illness or Injury by Dr. Ian Stevenson and Dr. Emily Williams Cook. (Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 183:452-458, 1995). A review of 117 cases of persons who, when near death or when they thought they were about to die, had the experience of seeing earlier events of their life suddenly coming into consciousness.  (pdf)

STE41. The Absence of Tunnel Sensations in Near-Death Experiences from India by Dr. Ian Stevenson, Dr. Allen Kellehear, Dr. Satwant Pasricha, and Dr. Emily Williams Cook. (Journal of Near-Death Studies. 13(2):109-113, 1994). This paper presents data contradicting the assumption that near-death experiences are similar all over the world. In fact, they show strong influences from different cultures. Tunnels, which are frequently reported for Western cases, do not occur in Indian ones. (pdf)

NDE28. Near-Death Experiences and Satisfaction With Life by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Journal of Near-Death Studies. 13:103-108, 1994). A study of satisfaction with life among 126 near-death experiencers, 40 persons who have come close to death but not had a near-death experience, and 109 persons who have not come close to death. (pdf)

NDE26. Experiencias Cercanas a la Muerte y Suicido by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Mas Alla de la Ciencias Monogr. #6, pp. 49-53, 1993). (In Spanish.) A discussion of near-death experiences following attempted suicide and the effect of the experience on further suicidal thinking.

NDE25. Varieties of Near-Death Experience by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Psychiatry 56:390-399, 1993). A discussion of the different types of near-death experience, and a study of the association of these types with demographic and situational factors among 246 persons who have come close to death.  (pdf)

NDE24. Near-Death Experiences and the Physio-Kundalini Syndrome by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Journal of Religion and Health 32:277-290, 1993). A study of physiological symptoms of kundalini awakening among 153 near-death experiencers, 55 persons who have come close to death but not had near-death experiences, and 113 persons who have not come close to death. (pdf)

NDE23. Near-Death Experiences and Anti-Suicidal Attitudes by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Omega 26:81-89, 1992-93). A study of anti-suicidal attitudes among 150 near-death experiencers and 43 persons who have come close to death but not had near-death experiences.  (pdf)

NDE22. Reduced Death Threat in Near-Death Experiencers by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Death Studies. 16:523-536, 1992). A study of how threatening death appears to be, comparing 135 near-death experiencers with 43 persons who have come close to death but not had near-death experiences and 112 persons who have not come close to death. (pdf)

NDE21. Distressing Near-Death Experiences by Dr. Bruce Greyson and N. E. Bush. (Psychiatry 55:95-110, 1992). A discussion of the different types of unpleasant or frightening near-death experiences. (pdf)

NDE20. Near-Death Experiences and Systems Theories: A Biosociological Approach to Mystical States by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Journal of Mind and Behavior. 12:487-500, 1991). A discussion of a biosociological model that seeks to explain near-death experiences in terms of information theories and systems theories.  (pdf)

NDE19. Near-Death Experiences Precipitated by Suicide Attempt: Lack of Influence of Psychopathology, Religion, and Expectations by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Journal of  Near-Death Studies 9:183-188, 1991). A study examining the association between near-death experiences and psychopathology, religious background, and expectations of death and dying among 61 survivors of attempted suicide. (pdf)

STE36. Features of “Near-Death Experience” in Relation to Whether or Not Patients Were Near Death by Dr. Ian Stevenson, Dr. Justine E. Owens, and Dr. Emily Williams Cook. (The Lancet 336:1175-1177, 1990). The authors compare the features of the experiences of 28 patients who came close to death with 30 patients who were not close to death but had similar experiences.  (pdf)

NDE17. Near-Death Encounters With and Without Near-Death Experiences by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Journal of Near-Death Studies. 8:151-161, 1990). A study comparing 183 persons who had near-death experiences with 63 persons who came close to death but did not have near-death experiences, using the NDE Scale described in Article #8 above.  (pdf)

STE30. Are Persons Reporting “Near-Death Experiences” Really Near Death? A Study of Medical Records by Dr. Ian Stevenson, Dr. Emily Williams Cook, and Dr. Nicholas McClean-Rice. (Omega 20:45-54, 1989-1990). Report of an analysis of medical records pertaining to 40 persons reporting near-death experiences, showing that over half of the subjects had not been near death at the time of their NDE. (pdf)

NDE15. Can Science Explain the Near-Death Experience? by Dr. Bruce Greyson (Journal of Near-Death Studies. 8:77-92, 1989). A discussion of the types of questions about near-death experiences that scientific studies can and cannot answer. (pdf)

NDE14. Clinical Approaches to the Near-Death Experience by Dr. Bruce Greyson and B. Harris). (Journal of Near-Death Stud. 6:41-52, 1987). Guidelines for clinical interventions with near-death experiencers, based on an interdisciplinary conference of clinicians and experiencers. (pdf)

NDE13. Incidence of Near-Death Experiences Following Attempted Suicide by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior. 16:40-45, 1986). A study of near-death experiences among 61 survivors of attempted suicide.  (pdf)

STE22. Near-Death Experiences in India: A Preliminary Report by Dr. Ian Stevenson and Dr. Satwant Pasricha. (Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 174:165-170, 1986). A study of 16 cases of persons in India who recovered from near death. The experiences among Indians differ significantly from those among Westerners. (pdf)

NDE11. A Typology of Near-Death Experiences by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (American Journal of Psychiatry 142:967-969, 1985). A classification of near-death experiences into 3 different types based on a statistical analysis of 89 experiences.  (pdf)

NDE10. Increase in Psychic Phenomena Following Near-Death Experiences by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Theta 11:26-29, 1983). A study of reported psychic phenomena before and after near-death experiences among 69 experiencers. (pdf)

NDE9. The Psychodynamics of Near-Death Experiences by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 171:376-381, 1983). A discussion of psychological mechanisms proposed to play a role in near-death experiences, and objections to and clinical usefulness of a psychological interpretation of near-death experiences.  (pdf)

NDE8. The Near-Death Experiences Scale: Construction, Reliability, and Validity by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 171:369-375, 1983). A description of the development and validation of a standardized scale for measuring near-death experiences. (pdf)

NDE7. Near-Death Experiences and Personal Values by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (American Journal of Psychiatry 140:618-620, 1983). A study of changes in personal values among 89 survivors of near-death experiences.  (pdf)

NDE6. Near-Death Studies, 1981-1982: A Review by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Anabiosis 2:150-158, 1982). A review of 43 articles on near-death experiences published in scientific journals during 1981-82. (pdf)

NDE5. Toward a Psychological Explanation of Near-Death Experiences by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Anabiosis 1:88-103, 1981). A discussion of psychological hypotheses proposed to explain near-death experiences. (pdf)

NDE4. Near-Death Experiences and Attempted Suicide by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Suicide Life-Threat. Behav. 11:10-16, 1981). A discussion of the reasons near-death experiences may reduce the risk of suicide attempts. (pdf)

STE13. The Phenomenology of Near-Death Experiences by Dr. Bruce Greyson and Dr. Ian Stevenson. (American Journal of Psychiatry 137:1193-1196, 1980). Presentation of some data pertaining to 78 reports of near-death experiences studied by the authors.  (pdf)

NDE2. The Investigation of Near-Death Experiences by Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Journal of Indian Psychology. 2: 7-11, 1979). A description of a program to seek evidence of survival after death by studying near-death experiences.

STE12. Near-Death Experiences: Relevance to the Question of Survival after Death by Dr. Ian Stevenson and Dr. Bruce Greyson. (Journal of the American Medical Association. 242:265-267, 1979). A brief review of some published studies of near-death experiences and a discussion of the importance of studying such cases. (pdf)