Weltman, Arthur L.
Use of exercise and lifestyle intervention to improve clinical outcomes and quality of life throughout the lifespan
Dr. Weltman is the Director of the Exercise Physiology Laboratory (EPL) of the General Clinical Research Center (GCRC). The lab is staffed by three full time Research Assistants. The Exercise Physiology Laboratory coordinates the following procedures for approved GCRC protocols: exercise evaluation including VO2 max and blood lactate threshold assessment on the bicycle ergometer and treadmill; metabolic, cardiovascular, and biochemical measurements during exercise; exercise training (aerobic and strength training); bedside calorimetry (sleep, basal, resting metabolic rate; thermic effect of food, clamp studies); anthropometry; measurement and interpretation of 2,3, and 4-compartment modeling of body composition including: body density measurement by hydrostatic weighing or air displacement plethysmography, DEXA assessment of bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), total body bone mineral (TBBM), and fat free mass, total body water assessment by deuterium and tritium dilution and by multifrequency bioelectrical impedance (MFBIA); CT and MRI assessment of regional distribution of body fat including abdominal visceral fat; measurement of strength (Biodex, 1 RM), balance and function. The lab also assists in the measurement of pulmonary function testing, measurement and analysis of endothelial function by brachial artery flow mediated dilation, measurement of bone quality by pQCT. Dr. Weltman also provides assistance to investigators in the areas of research design and interpretation of data related to procedures provided by the EPL lab.
Our research is focused in the area of exercise and lifestyle intervention on clinical outcomes and quality of life. Some examples of recent and current research projects include the following:
<li> Effects of macronutrient composition of a meal on endothelial function. In this study we found that a breakfast high in cereal fiber and carbohydrate resulted in an acute improvement in endothelial function (measured by brachial artery flow mediated dilation), whereas a high fat meal of equal caloric content impaired endothelial function. </li>
<li>Effects of exercise training intensity on changes in abdominal visceral fat in obese women with the metabolic syndrome. In this study we trained obese women with the metabolic syndrome at one of two training intensities, a low to moderate training intensity and a moderate to hard training intensity. Training volume and caloric expenditure was equated over the 16 week training program. We found that high intensity exercise training resulted in significantly greater weight loss and reduction in abdominal visceral fat than either low intensity exercise or control. </li>
<li>Effects of exercise training on endothelial function in postmenopausal Caucasian and African American women. Postmenopausal African American women are known to have impaired endothelial function when compared to Caucasian women. Exercise training is known to improve endothelial function. In this ongoing study we are examining whether African American and Caucasian post menopausal women will have similar improvements in endothelial function in response to exercise training. </li>
<li>Effects of exercise intensity on post prandial glucose disposal. In individuals with impaired glucose tolerance, exacerbated post-prandial glycemic excursions occur, with higher levels of both glucose and insulin in the blood for longer periods of time. Increasing evidence suggests that these exacerbated post-prandial excursions are closely associated with, and may be pre-disposing for, many of the complications associated with diabetes and insulin resistance, including atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Exercise has been shown to reduce the risks associated with insulin resistance and is an effective means of reducing glycemic excursions and increasing insulin sensitivity. In this study, we will examine the dose-response relationship between intensity of exercise at equal caloric output and the resultant glycemic effects, with the ultimate aim of identifying the minimum effective exercise intensity for the reduction of post-prandial glycemic excursions. </li>