Dr. Li is very active in both basic science and clinical research and has presented at national and international meetings. He has developed a renowned laboratory focusing on intervertebral disc degeneration pathology and treatment with stem cells, nanotechnology and gene therapy. Dr. Li has been the recipient of about 20 grants as the Principle Investigator including 6 NIH (National Institute of Health R03, R21 and R01) grants. Perhaps the greatest recognition that an Orthopaedic Researcher can receive in our field is the Kappa Delta Award. Recipients of this award are judged based on the sum total of all of the work that the individual as accomplished to date. Dr. Li received the Kappa Delta Young Investigator award in 2012.

Federal Grants

  1. 2023 – 2025 National Institutes of Health R21 “Macrophage Anchoring Nanomedicine to Replace Steroids for Intra-articular Injection
  2. 2022 – 2027 National Institutes of Health, R01 “Deciphering Macrophage Function in Disc Herniation
  3. 2021 – 2023 National Institutes of Health R21 “An ex vivo system to model the inflammatory microenvironment of human disc herniation”
  4. 2018 – 2021 National Institutes of Health R21 “Disc-on-chip: microfluidic nutrition and biomechanical loading integrated mouse disc culture system
  5. 2013 – 2020 National Institutes of Health R01 “Systemic application for injury site specific delivery via neutrophils to treat acute back pain
  6. 2011 – 2015 National Institutes of Health R21 “Treatment of disc degeneration by nano-fullerenes
  7. 2006 – 2010 National Institutes of Health R03 “GDF-5 Regulation in Intervertebral Disc Degeneration

Non-Govermental Grants(AS A P.I. or co-p.i.)

8. NASS Research grant Co-P.I. (Li Xiao, P.I.) 2021-2022
9. 4-VA Collaborative Grant, co-P.I (Li Jin, P.I.) 2021-2022
10. Engineering in Medicine, P.I. 2020-2021
11. Alternatives Research & Development Foundation (ARDF), Co-P.I. (Li Jin, P.I.) 2019-2020
12. 3 Cavaliers, P.I. 2018-2019
13. Center for Advanced Biomanufacturing Seed Fund, co-P.I. (Li Jin, P.I.) 2018-2019
14. Engineering in Medicine Grant, P.I. 2018-2019
15. Commonwealth Health Research Board, Virginia, Co-PI. (Li Jin, P.I.) 2018-2020
16. Orthopaedic Trauma Association Resident Grant, P.I. 2015-2016
17. North American Spine Society Research Grant, P.I. 2013-2015
18. Orthopaedic Trauma Association Resident Grant, P.I. 2011-2012
19. Musculoskeletal Transplant Foundation Grant, Co-P.I. 2011-2012
20. North American Spine Society Research Grant, P.I. 2011-2012
21. AO Foundation Focus Grant, P.I. 2008-2012
22. AO Foundation Start-up Grant, P.I. 2008-2010
23. Scoliosis Research Society Research Grant, P.I. 2008-2010
24. Cervical Spine Research Society Seed Grant, P.I. 2007-2008
25. Research and Development Grant, University of Virginia, P.I. 2005-2007
26. Funding Excellence in Science and Technology (FEST), P.I. 2005-2007
27. AO International Research Grant, P.I. 2005-2007
28. Arthritis Foundation Postdoctoral Fellowship, P.I. 2004-2007
29. Musculoskeletal Transplant Foundation Grant, P.I. 2007-2008
30. National Osteoporosis Foundation, Co-P.I. (Francis H. Shen, P.I.) 2007-2008
31. North American Spine Society Research Grant, P.I. 2005-2007
32. DePuy Company Research Grant, P.I. 2005-2006
33. Musculoskeletal Transplant Foundation Grant, P.I. 2004-2006

Peer Reviewed Publications

Referred Journal Original Publications

    1. Chi J, Yang H, Zhang Y, Raso J, Labaran L, Li X. Effect of Celiac Disease on Outcomes After Posterior Lumbar Fusion: A Matched Cohort Study. World Neurosurg. 2023 Apr 17;S1878-8750(23)00518-1. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2023.04.035 In Press
    2. Chi J, Raso J, Tadepalli V, Labaran L, Oh E, Wang J, Shen FH, Li X*. Outcomes Following Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion in Patients With Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome. Global Spine J. 2023 Jan 16:21925682231151924. doi: 10.1177/21925682231151924. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36645101.
    3. Torres-Castro K, Jarmoshti J, Xiao L, Rane A, Salahi A, Jin L, Li X*, Caselli F, Honrado C, Swami N. Multichannel impedance cytometry downstream of cell separation by deterministic lateral displacement to quantify macrophage enrichment in heterogeneous samples. Advanced Materials Technology, accepted
    4. Xiao L, Matharoo J, Chi J, Ma J, Chen M, Manley B, Xu P, Shi W, Felder R, Sung SS, Jin L, Li X*. Transient depletion of macrophages alters local inflammatory response at the site of disc herniation in a transgenic mouse model. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, in press. PMID: 36754251
    5. Burke J, Tadepalli V, Chi J, Li X*. Reduction and Stabilization of an Extension-Distraction Injury in a Patient with Ankylosing Spondylitis: A Case Report. JBJS case connector, 2022 Oct 14;12(4).
    6. Xiao L, Huang R, Sulimai N, Yao R, Manley B, Xu P, Felder R, Jin L, Dorn HC, Li X*. Amine functionalized trimetallic nitride endohedral fullerenes: a class of nanoparticle to tackle low bac/leg pain. ACS Applied Bio Materials. 2022, 5 (6)2943-2955
    7. Salahia A, Rane A, Xiao L, Honradoa C, Li X, Jin L, Swami N. Single-cell assessment of the modulation of macrophage activation by ex vivo intervertebral discs using impedance cytometry. Biosensors and Bioelectronics. 2022. August 15, 210: 114346.
    8. Yin M, Xie W, Xiao L, Sung SS, Jin L, Li X*, Xu B*. Cyclic swelling enabled, electrically conductive 3D porous structures for microfluidic urinalysis devices. Extreme Mechanics letter. 2022; 52: 101631. IF 4.567.
    9. Kamalapathy PN, Vatani J, Raso J, Hassanzadeh H, Li X*. How old is too old?: Matched analysis of geriatric patients undergoing anterior lumbar interbody fusion. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2022 Jan;212:107090.
    10. Althoff AD, Kamalapathy PN, Vatani J, Hassanzadeh H, Li X*. Osteoporosis is Associated with Increased Minor Complications and Pulmonary Embolism following Single Level ALIF and PSIF Spine Stabilization. Journal of Spine Surgery, 7 (3), 269
    11. Jin L, Xiao L, Ding M, Pan A, Balian G, Sung SS, Li X*. Heterogeneous macrophages contribute to the pathology of disc herniation induced radiculopathy. Spine J. 2021 Oct 27:S1529-9430. PMID: 34718176.
    12. Gailey C, Wang E, Jin L, Ahmadi S, Brautigan D, Li X, Xu W, Fu Z*. Phosphosite T674A mutation in kinesin family member 3A fails to reproduce tissue and ciliary defects characteristic of CILK1 loss of function. Dev Dyn 2021 Feb;250(2):263-273 PMID: 32935890.
    13. Kent JB, Jin L, Li X. Quantifying Biofield Therapy through Biophoton Emission in a Cellular Model. J Sci Explor. 2020; 34(3):434-454. PMID: 33223611.
    14. Yuan X, Zhang P, Zhang Y, Holzer L, Xiao L, He Y, Majumda R, Yu X, Ramasubramanian R, Jin L, Wang Y, Li X*, Oberholzer* J. A multi-throughput mechanical loading system for mouse intervertebral disc. Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials. 2020,105:103636. PMID: 32279855.
    15. Yin M, Xiao L, Liu C, Zhang Y, Kwon S, Sharma P, Jin L, Li X*, Xu B*. 3D printed microheater sensor-integrated, drug-encapsulated microneedle patch system for pain management. Advanced Healthcare Materials. 2019, 8(23): 1901170. PMID 31664794.
    16. Xiao L, Huang R, Zhang Y, Li T, Dai J, Nannapuneni N, Chastanet T, Chen M, Shen F, Jin L, Dorn HC, Li X*. A new formyl peptide receptor-1 antagonist conjugated fullerene nanoparticle for targeted treatment of degenerative disc diseases. ACS Applied Materials & Interface 2019, 11(42):38405-38416. PMID 31556594.
    17. Li X, Lenke L*, Jin L, Tuchman A, Tan L, Lehman R. Cerpa M. Surgeon specific risk stratification model for early complications following complex adult spinal deformity surgery. Spine Deformity. 2019, 8(1): 97-104. PMID 31981147.
    18. Lin JD, Tan LA, Tuchman A, Li X, Zhang H, Ren K, Riew KD*. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of spinal canal encroachment during cervical laminectomy using the kerrison rongeur versus High-Speed burr. Br J Neurosurg. 2019 Apr;33(2):131-134. PMID: 30681374.
    19. Xiao L, Majumdar R, Dai J, Li Y, Xie L, Shen FH, Jin L, Li X*. Molecular detection and assessment of intervertebral disc degeneration via a collagen hybridizing peptide. ACS Biomater. Sci. Eng., 2019; 5(4): 1661-1667. PMID: 31788555.
    20. Dai J, Xing Y, Xiao L, Li J, Cao R, He Y, Fang H, Periasamy A, Oberhozler J, Jin L, Landers J, Wang Y, Li X*. Microfluidic disc-on-a-chip device for mouse intervertebral disc—pitching a next-generation research platform to study disc degeneration. ACS Biomater. Sci. Eng., 2019; 5(4): 2041-2051. PMID: 31763444.
    21. Yerneni K, Burke JF, Tuchman A, Li X, Metz LN, Lehman RA, Lenke LG, Tan LA*. Topical tranexamic acid in spinal surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Neurosci. 2019;61:114‐119. PMID: 30401569.
    22. Tuchman A, Tan LA, Shillingford JN, Li X, Riew KD*. Dynamic changes in the reflex exam of patients with sub-axial cervical stenosis. J Clin Neurosci. 2019;60:84‐87. PMID: 30309800.
    23. Oshina M, Oshima Y, Tanaka S, Tan LA, Li X, Tuchman A, Riew KD*. Utility of oblique sagittal reformatted and three-dimensional surface reconstruction computed tomography in foraminal stenosis decompression. Sci Rep. 2018;30;8(1):16011. PMID: 30375504
    24. Li X, Lenke L*, Tan LA, Tuchman A. Prone position-induced quadriceps transcranial motor evoked potentials signal loss – A case report. Spine Deform.2018;6(5):627-630. PMID: 30122401.
    25. Tan LA, Yerneni K, Tuchman A, Li X, Cerpa M, Lehman RA Jr., Lenke LG*. Utilization of the 3D-printed spine model for freehand pedicle screw placement in complex spinal deformity correction. J Spine Surgery 2018;4(2):319-327. PMID: 30069524.
    26. Tan LA, Benkli B, Tuchman A, Li X, Desai NN, Bottiglieri TS, Pavel J, Lenke LG, Lehman RA Jr*. High prevalence of greater trochanteric pain syndrome among patients presenting to spine clinic for evaluation of degenerative lumbar pathologies. J Clin Neurosci. 2018;53:89-91. PMID: 29685405.
    27. Chen DQ, Shimer Al, Li X, Hassanzadeh H, Shen FH, Singla A*. Unplanned immediate return to operating room after spine surgery: significance of immediate postoperative radiographs. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2018;44(4):258-262. PMID 30015715.


    1. Horowitz JA, Puvanesarajah V, Jain A, Li X, Shimer AL, Shen FH, Hassanzadeh H*. Rheumatoid Arthritis is associated with an increased risk of postoperative infection and revision surgery in elderly patients undergoing anterior cervical fusion. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2018;43(17):E1040-E1044. PMID 29481378.
    2. Xiao L, Hong K, Roberson C, Ding M, Fernandez A, Shen, FH, Jin L, Sonkusare S, Li X*. Hydroxylated fullerene: A stellar nanomedicine to treat lumbar radiculopathy via antagonizing TNF-α induced ion channel activation, calcium signaling and neuropeptides production. ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering. 2018;4(1):266-277. PMID 30038959.
    3. Ding M, Jin L, Xie L, Park SH, Tong Y, Wu D, Chhabra AB, Fu Z, Li X*. A murine model for human ECO syndrome reveals a critical role of intestinal cell kinase in skeletal development. Calcif Tissue Int. 2018;102(3):348-357. PMID 29098359.
    4. Tong Y, Park SH, Wu D, Xu W, Jin L, Li X, Guillot SJ, Wang Y, Lin CS, Fu Z. An essential role for intestinal cell kinase (ICK) in lung development underlies the perinatal lethality phenotype of human endocrine-cerebro-osteodysplasia (ECO) syndrome. The FEBS Lett. 2017;591(9):1247-1257
    5. Yeh CH, Chen D, Aghdasi B, Xiao L, Ding M, Jin L, Li X*. Link protein N-terminal peptide and fullerol promote matrix production and decrease degradation enzymes in rabbit annulus cells. Connect Tissue Res. 2017:1-10. PMID 28509587.
    6. Li T, Xiao L, Yang J, Ding M, Zhou Z, Laconte L, Jin Li, Dorn H, Li X*. Trimetallic Nitride Endohedral Fullerenes Carboxyl-Gd3N@C80: A New Theranostic Agent for Combating Oxidative Stress and Resolving Inflammation. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2017;9(21):17681-17687. PMID 28516768.
    7. Jin L, Ding M, Aghdasi B, Oklopcic A, Yang J, Xiao L, Todorovic V, Li X*. Nanoparticle fullerenol alleviates radiculopathy via inflammasome and neutrotransmitter. Nanomedicine, 2017;13(6):2049-2059.  PMID 28404518.
    8. Xiao L, Ding M, Zhao P, Jin L, Li X*. Curcumin alleviates lumbar radiculopathy via reducing neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and nociceptive factors. Eur Cell Mater. 2017;33:279-293. PMID 28485773.
    9. Xiao L, Li T, Ding M, Yang J, LaConte S, Nacey N, Weiss D, Jin L, Dorn H, Li X*. Detecting chronic post-traumatic osteomyelitis of mouse tibia via an IL-13Rα2 targeted metallofullerene magnetic imaging probe. Bioconjugate and Chemistry, 2017;28(2):649-658 PMID 28061526.
    10. Xiao L, Ding M, Zhang Y, Chordia M, Pan D, Shimer A, Shen F, Glover D, Jin L, Li X*. A novel modality for functional imaging in acute intervertebral disk herniation via tracking leukocyte infiltration. Mol Imaging Biol. 2017;19(5):703-713 PMID:28050750.
    11. Xiao L, Ding M, Saadoon O, Vess E, Fernandez A, Zhao P, Jin L, Li X*. A novel culture platform for fast proliferation of human annulus fibrosis cells. Cell and Tissue Research, 2017;367(2):339-350. PMID 27623803.
    12. Puvanesarajah V, Jain A, Shimer AL, Li X, Singla A, Shen F, Hassanzadeh H*. Complications and mortality following 1 to 2 level lumbar fusion surgery in patients above 80 years of age. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2016;10:S292. PMID 27359360
    13. Yeh A, Jin L, Shen FH, Shimer AL, Balian G. Li X*. MiR-221 attenuates the osteogenic differentiation of human annulus fibrosus cells. Spine J. 2016;16(7):896-904 PMID 26997108.
    14. Zhu C, Ming Z, Liu K, Wan Y, Li X, Feng G*. Novel chitosan hydrogel formed by ethylene glycol chitosan, 1,6-diisocyanatohexan and polyethylene glycol-400 for tissue engineering scaffold: in vitro and in vivo evaluation. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, 2014;25(8):1903-13. PMID: 24805882.
    15. Jin L*, Liu Q, Scott P, Zhang D, Shen FH, Balian G, Li X. Annulus fibrosus cell characteristics are a potential source of intervertebral disc pathogenesis. PLoS One. 2014;5;9(5):e96519. PMID 24796761.
    16. Yang X, Jin L, Yao L, Shen FH, Shimer A, Li X*. Antioxidative nano-fullerol prevents intervertebral disc degeneration. International Journal of Nanomedicine, 2014;9:1-12. PMID 24876775.
    17. Liu Q, Cui Q, Li X, Jin L*. The applications of buckminsterfullerene C60 and derivatives in orthopaedic research. Connective Tissue Research, 2014;55(2):71-9. PMID 24409811.
    18. Yang D, Wang D, Shimer A, Shen FH, Li X, Yang X*. Glutathione protects human nucleus pulposus cells from cell apoptosis and inhibition of matrix synthesis. Connect Tissue Research. 2014; 55(2):132-9. PMID 24409809.
    19. Liang H, Li X, Shimer AL, Balian G, Shen FH*. A novel strategy of spine defect repair with a degradable bioactive scaffold preloaded with adipose-derived stromal cells. Spine J. 2014; 14(3):445-54. PMID 24360747.
    20. Liu Q, Jin L, Shen FH, Balian G, Li X*. Fullerol nanoparticles suppress inflammatory response and adipogenesis of vertebral bone marrow stromal cells-A novel treatment for intervertebral disc degeneration. Spine J. 2013;13(11):1571-80. PMID 23669123.
    21. Liu Q, Jin L, Mahon BH, Chordia MD, Shen FH, Li X*. Novel treatment of neuroinflammation against low back pain by soluble Fullerol nanoparticles. Spine. 2013;38(17):1443-51. PMID 23465506.
    22. Yang XL, Shang HL, Katz A, Li X*. GDF-5 mediated chondrogeneiss in microsphere culture. Biores Open Access. 2013;2(4):258-65.
    23. Shen FH*, Werner BC, Liang H, Shang H, Yang N, Li X, Shimer AL, Balian G, Katz AJ. Implications of adipose-derived stromal cells in a 3D culture system for osteogenic differentiation: an in vitro and in vivo investigation. Spine J. 2013;13(1)32-43 2013 Outstanding Paper Runner up PMID 23384881.
    24. Jin L, Feng G, Reames DL, Li X*. The effect of simulated microgravity on intervertebral disc degeneration. Spine J. 2013; 13(3):235-42. PMID 23537452.
    25. Zhang D, Jin L, Shen FH, Li X*. Intervertebral disc degeneration and ectopic bone formation in applipoprotein E knockout mice. Journal of Orthopaedic Research. 2013;31(2):210-7. PMID: 22915292
    26. Jin L, Wan Y, Shen FH, Li X*. Intervertebral disc-like biphasic scaffold – demineralized bone matrix cylinder and poly (polycaprolactone triol malate) – for interbody spine fusion. Journal of Tissue Engineering. 2012;3(1):2041731412454420 PMID 22919457.
    27. Kapur SK, Wang X, Shang H, Yun S, Li X, Feng G, Khurgel M, Katz AJ*. Human adipose stem cells maintain proliferative, synthetic and multipotential properties when suspension cultured as self-assembling spheroids. Biofabrication 2012;4(2):025004 PMID 22522924.
    28. Liu HJ, Yang XL, Zhang Yi, Dighe A, Li X, Cui Q*. Fullerol antagonizes dexamethasone-induced oxidative stress and adipogenesis while enhancing osteogenesis in a cloned bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell. Journal of Orthopaedic Research 2012; 30(7):1051-7 PMID 22570221.
    29. Yang XL, Wang DD, Hao JR, Gong MQ, Arlet V, Balian G, Shen FH, Li X*. Enhancement of matrix production and cell proliferation in human annulus cells under bioreactor culture. Tissue Engineering Part A, 2011;17(11-12):1595-603. PMID 21303231.
    30. Liang H, Wang K, Shimer AL, Li X, Balian G, Shen FH*. Use of a bioactive scaffold for the repair of bone defects in a novel reproducible vertebral body defect model. Bone. 2010; 47(2):197-204. PMID 20580872
    31. Yang X, Wan Y, Qiao X, Arlet V, Li X*. Transcriptional alteration of matrix-related gene expression in cultured human disc cells by nanoparticles of a bis-methanophosphonate fullerene. Cell Biol Int. 2010; 34(8):837-44. PMID 20441571.
    32. Deng M, Nair LS, Nukavarapu SP, Jiang T, Kanner WA, Li X, Kumbar SG, Weikel AL, Krogman NR, Allcock HR, Laurencin CT*. Dipeptide-based polyphosphazene and polyester blends for bone tissue engineering. Biomaterials. 2010; 31(18):4898-90 PMID 20334909.
    33. Gong M, Zhang D, Wan Y, Edmondson B, Cui Q, Li X*. Engineered synovial joint condyle using demineralized bone matrix. Material Science and Engineering C. 2010; 30: 531-536.
    34. Feng G, Yang X, Shang H, Marks I, Shen FH, Katz A, Arlet V, Laurencin CT, Li X*. Multipotential differentiation of human annulus fibrosus cells – an in vitro study. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. 2010; 92(3):675-85 PMID 20194326.
    35. Liang H, Ma S, Feng G, Shen FH, Li X*. Therapeutic effects of adenovirs-mediated growth and differentiation factor-5 in a mice disc degeneration model induced by annulus needle puncture. Spine Journal, 2010; 10(1):32-41. 2009 Outstanding Paper Runner up. PMID: 19926342
    36. Yang P, Wang C, Shi Z, Huang X, Dang X, Li X, Lin S-F, Wang K*. rhVEGF165 delivered in a porous β-tricalcium phosphate scaffold accelerate bridging of critical-sized defects in rabbit radii. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research: Part A, 2010; 92(2):626-40.
    37. Feng G, Wan Y, Shen FH, Li X*. Nucleus pulposus explant culture model. Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 2009; 27(6):814-9. PMID 19030173.
    38. Feng G, Wan Y, Balian G, Laurencin CT, Li X*. Adenovirus-mediated expression of growth and differentiation factor-5 promotes chondrogenesis of adipose stem cells. Growth Factors. 2008; 26(3):132-42. PMID: 18569021
    39. Wan Y, Feng G, Shen FH, Laurencin CT, Li X*. Biphasic scaffold for annulus fibrosus tissue regeneration. Biomaterials. 2008; 29(6):643-52. PMID 17997480.
    40. Cui M, Wan Y, Anderson DG, Shen FH, Leo BM, Laurencin CT, Balian G, Li X*. Mouse growth and differentiation factor-5 protein and DNA therapy potentiates intervertebral disc cell aggregation and chondrogenic gene expression. Spine Journal, 2008; 8(2):287-95. (Outstanding Paper Award) PMID 17974491.
    41. Zeng Q, Li X, Choi L, Beck G. Balian G, Shen FH*. Growth and differentiation factor-5 (GDF-5) stimulates osteogenic differentiation and increases vascular endothelia growth factor (VEGF) levels in fat-derived stromal cells in vitro. Bone. 2007; 40(2):374-381. PMID 17070126.
    42. Wan Y, Feng G, Shen FH, Balian G, Laurencin CT, Li X*. Novel biodegradable poly (1, 8-diol malate (pom) for annulus fibrosus regeneration. Macromolecular Bioscience.2007; 7(11):1217-24. PMID 17683110.
    43. Zeng Q, Li X, Choi L, Beck G. Balian G, Shen FH*. Recombinant growth/differentiation factor-5 (GDF-5) stimulates osteogenic differentiation of fat-derived stromal cells in vitro. Connective Tissue Research, 2006; 47(5):264-70 PMID 17118748.
    44. Shen FH*, Zeng Q, Lv Q, Choi L, Balian G. Li X, Laurencin CT. Osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stromal cells treated with GDF-5 cultured on a novel three-dimensional sintered microsphere matrix. Spine Journal, 2006; 6(6):615-23 (Outstanding Paper Award) PMID 17088192.
    45. Cui Q*, Xiao Z, Li X, Saleh K, Balian G. Use of genetically engineered bone-marrow stem cells to treat femoral defects: an experimental study. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 2006; 88(Suppl 3):167-72 PMID 17079384.
    46. Li X*, Jin L, Balian G, Laurencin CT, Anderson DG. Demineralized bone matrix gelatin as scaffold for osteochondral tissue engineering. Biomaterials, 2006; 27(11):2426-33 PMID 16343611.
    47. Li X*, Lee JP, Balian G, Anderson DG. Modulation of chondrocytic properties of fat-derived mesenchymal cells in co-cultures with nucleus pulposus. Connective Tissue Research, 2005; 42 (2):1-6 PMID 16019417.
    48. Anderson DG*, Li X, Balian G. A Fibronectin fragment alters the metabolism by intervertebral disc cells in vitro. Spine, 2005; 30(11):1242-1246 PMID: 15928546.
    49. Li X*, Jin L, Cui Q, Wang G-J, Balian G. Steroid effects on osteogenesis through mesenchymal cell gene expression. Osteoporosis International, 2004; 16: 101-108 PMID 15205891.
    50. Li X*, Leo BM, Beck G, Balian G, Anderson DG. Collagen and proteoglycan abnormalities in GDF-5 deficient mice may be corrected by treating disc cells with recombinant growth factor. Spine, 2004; 29(20):2229-2234 PMID 15480133.
    51. Leo BM, Li X, Balian G, Anderson DG*. In vivo bioluminescent imaging of virus mediated gene transfer and transduced cell transplantation in the intervertebral disc. Spine, 2004; 29(8): 838-844 PMID 15082981.
    52. Li X*, Cui Q, Wang GJ, Balian G: Lovastatin inhibits adipogenic and stimulates osteogenic differentiation by suppressing PPARc2 and increasing Cbfa1/Runx2 expression in bone marrow mesenchymal cell culture. Bone, 2003; 33(4): 652-659 PMID 14555271.
    53. Anderson DG*, Li X, Tannoury T, Beck G, Balian G: A Fibronectin fragment stimulates intervertebral disc degeneration in vivo. Spine, 2003; 28(20): 2338-2345 PMID 14560080.


  1. Aghdasi B, Li X, Jose George, Shen FH. Fixation techniques in revision spine surgery. Seminars in Spine Surgery, 2019;31(2):87-95.
  2. Jin L, Balian G, Li X*. Animal models for disc degeneration- an update. Histology and Histopathology, 2017 Jun 5:11910.
  3. Li X, Jin L, Hassanzadeh H*, Shen FH. State of the art and future of stem cells in spine. Seminars in Spine Surgery, 2015;27(2):93-102.
  4. Li X*, Jin L, Shen FH. Tissue engineering of the intervertebral disk. Orthopaedic Knowledge Online Journal 2014;12(5).
  5. Werner BC, Li X, Shen FH*. Stem cells in preclinical spine studies. Spine J. 2014;14(3):542-51.
  6. Jin L, Shimer AL, Li X*. The challenge and advancement of annulus fibrosus tissue Engineering. Eur Spine J. 2013;22(5):1090-100 PMID 23361531.
  7. Jin L, Li X*. Growth and Differentiation factor 5 in bone regeneration. Current Pharmacology Design. Curr Pharm Des. 2013;19(19):3364-73 PMID 23432680.
  8. Yang X*, Li X. Nucleus pulposus tissue engineering: state of the art. European Spine Journal. 2009; 18(11):1564-72. PMID 19603198.
  9. Kofron MD, Li X, Laurencin CT*. Protein and gene-based tissue engineering in bone repair. Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 2004; 15(5):399-405 PMID 15464368