Hematopoietic loss of Y chromosome leads to cardiac fibrosis and heart failure mortality

Hematopoietic mosaic loss of Y chromosome (mLOY) is associated with increased risk of mortality and age-related diseases in men, but the causal and mechanistic relationships have yet to be established. Here, we show that male mice reconstituted with bone marrow cells lacking the Y chromosome display increased mortality and age-related profibrotic pathologies including reduced cardiac function. Cardiac macrophages lacking the Y chromosome exhibited polarization toward a more fibrotic phenotype, and treatment with a transforming growth factor β1-neutralizing antibody ameliorated cardiac dysfunction in mLOY mice. A prospective study revealed that mLOY in blood is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease and heart failure-associated mortality. Together, these results indicate that hematopoietic mLOY causally contributes to fibrosis, cardiac dysfunction, and mortality in men.