Anne M. Mills, M.D.

Associate Professor of Pathology


Med School: University of Virginia School of Medicine, 2004-2008
Residency:  Stanford School of Medicine, Anatomic and Clinical Pathology, 2008-2012
Fellowships: University of Virginia Department of Pathology, Cytopathology, 2013-2014
University of Virginia Department of Pathology, Gynecologic Pathology, 2014-2015

Clinical Area:

General surgical pathology with specialization in gynecological pathology and cytopathology.


My research interests center around the use of molecular and immunohistochemical techniques to improve cancer diagnosis and prognostication with specific interest in uterine neoplasia, gyneologic heritable cancer syndromes, and human papilloma virus-related malignancies.


  • AM Mills, TN Bullock, KL Ring. Targeting Immune Checkpoints in Gynecologic Cancer: Updates & Perspectives for Gynecologic Oncologists & Pathologists. Mod Pathol 2021; in press.
  • M Cocks, AM Mills. The Immune Checkpoint LAG-3 and Its Ligand GAL-3 in Vulvar Squamous Neoplasia. Int J Gynecol Pathol 2021; epub ahead of press.
  • B Kurpiel, MS Thomas, M Mubeen, KL Ring, SC Modesitt, CA Moskaluk, AM Mills. MLH1/PMS2-deficient endometrial carcinomas in a universally screened population: MLH1 hypermethylation and germline mutation status. Int J Gynecol Pathol 2021; epub ahead of press
  • M Moore, AM Mills, P Dillon, KA Atkins, ED Shanes. Pleomorphic adenoma of the breast: A potential morphologic and molecular pitfall in the era of genomic risk stratification. Current Problems in Cancer Case Reports 2021; epub ahead of press.
  • KA Devereaux, JJ Weiel, AM Mills, CA Kunder, TA Longacre. Neurofibrosarcoma revisited: an institutional case series of uterine sarcomas harboring kinase-related fusions with report of a novel FGFR1-TACC1 fusion. Am J Surg Pathol 2021; epub ahead of press.
  • AC Dusenbery, JL Maniaci, ND Hillerson, TN Bullock, AM Mills. MHC class I loss in triple-negative breast cancer: A potential barrier to PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors. Am J Surg Pathol 2021; epub ahead of press.
  • AM Mills. PD-L1 interpretation in cervical carcinomas: Proceedings of the ISGyP companion society session at the 2020 USCAP annual meeting. Int J Gyn Pathol 2021; 40(1):1-4.
  • LA Friedman, TN Bullock, EA Sloan, KL Ring, AM Mills. MHC Class I loss in endometrial carcinoma: a potential resistance mechanism to immune checkpoint inhibition. Mod Pathol 2021; 34(3):627-636.
  • ME Dibbern, TN Bullock, TM Jenkins, LR Duska, MH Stoler, AM Mills.  Loss of MHC Class I Expression in HPV-Associated Cervical and Vulvar Neoplasia: A Potential Mechanism of Resistance to Checkpoint Inhibition.  Am J Surg Pathol 2020 in press.
  • J Curley, MR Conaway, Z Chinn, LR Duska, M Stoler, AM Mills.  Looking past PD-L1: expression of immune checkpoint TIM-3 and its ligand galectin-9 in cervical and vulvar squamous neoplasia. Mod Pathol 2020, Epub ahead of print.
  • LA Friedman, Ring KL, AM Mills. LAG-3 and GAL-3 in endometrial carcinoma: Emerging candidates for immunotherapy. Int J Gynecol Pathol 2020; 39(3):203-2012.
  • AM Mills, L Duska.  Stuck in the Middle: Diagnostic and clinical management challenges surrounding CIN2. BJOG 2020:127(6):737.
  • TM Jenkins KZ Hanley, LE Schwartz, L Cantrell, MH Stoler, AM Mills. Mismatch repair deficiency in uterine carcinosarcoma: A multi-institutional retrospective review. Am J Surg Pathol. 2020 Epub ahead of print.
  • R Whitehair , LC Peres, AM Mills.  Expression of the immune checkpoints LAG-3 and PD-L1 in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma: Relationship to tumor-associated lymphocytes and germline BRCA Int J Gynecol Pathol 2020 Epub ahead of print.
  • Shanes ED, LA Friedman, AM Mills. PD-L1 expression and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in uterine smooth muscle tumors: Implications for immunotherapy. Am J Surg Pathol. 2019: 43(6):792-801.
  • M Moore, KL Ring, AM Mills. TIM-3 in Endometrial Carcinomas: An Immunotherapeutic Target Expressed by Mismatch Repair-Deficient and Intact Cancers. Mod Pathol. 2019:32(8):1168-79.
  • S Croce, I Hostein, TA Longacre, AM Mills, et al. Uterine and vaginal sarcomas resembling fibrosarcoma: a clinicopathological and molecular analysis of 13 cases showing common NTRK-rearrangements and the description of a COL1A1-PDGFB fusion novel to uterine neoplasms. Mod Pathol 2019:32(7):1008-22.
  • M Sullivan, F Camacho, AM Mills, SC Modesitt. Missing information in statewide and national cancer databases: Correlation with health risk factors, geographic disparities, and outcomes. Gynecol Oncol 2019:152(1):119-126.
  • LR Duska, GR Petroni, H Lothamer, W Faust, JH Beumer, SM Christner, AM Mills, PM Fracasso, SJ Parsons. A window-of-opportunity clinical trial of dasatinib in women with newly diagnosed endometrial cancer. Cancer Chemotherp Pharmacol. 2019:83(3):473-482.
  • AM Mills, Z Chinn, LA Rauh, AC Dusenbery, RM Whitehair, E Saks, LR Duska. Emerging biomarkers in ovarian granulosa cell tumors. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2019:29(3):560-565.
  • Z Chinn, Stoler MH, AM Mills. PD-L1 and IDO Expression in Cervical and Vulvar Invasive and Intraepithelial Squamous Neoplasias: Implications for Combination Immunotherapy. Histopathology 2019:74(2):256-268.
  • AM Mills, Peres LC, Meiss A, Ring KL, Modesitt SC, et al. Targetable immune regulatory molecule expression in high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas in African-American women: A study of PD-L1 and IDO in 112 Cases from the African American Cancer Epidemiology Study (AACES). Int J Gynecol Pathol 2019:38(2):157-170.
  • JD Coppock, AK Volaric, AM Mills, AA Gru. Concordance levels of PD-L1 expression by immunohistochemistry mRNA in situ hybridization, and outcome in lung carcinomas. Human Pathol 2018:82:282-288.
  • JD Lewis, KE Fane, Ingram AM, Kahn A, AM Mills, SC Pitt, D Ramo, RI Wu, SM Pollart. Expanding opportunities for professional development: utilization of Twitter by early career women in academic medicine and science. JMIR Med Ed 2018;4(2):e11140.
  • T Terzic, AM Mills, S Zadeh, KA Atkins, KZ Hanley. Gata3 Expression in common gynecologic carcinomas: A potential pitfall. Int J Gynecol Pathol Epub ahead of press.
  • A Volaric, R Genzler, R Hall, JH Mehaffey, EB Stelow, TN Bullock, LW Martin, AM Mills. Indoleamine-2,3-Dioxygenase in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A targetable mechanism of immune resistance frequently coexpressed with PD-L1. Am J Surg Pathol 2018;42(9):1216-1229.
  • A Meiss, MH Thomas, SC Modesitt, KL Ring, KA Atkins, AM Mills. Clinicopathologic Characterization of Breast Carcinomas in Patients with Non-BRCA Germline Mutations: Results from a Single Institution’s High Risk Population. Human Pathol 2018:82:20-31.
  • J Coppock, B Willis, M Stoler, AM Mills. HPV RNA in situ hybridization can inform cervical cytology-histology correlation. Cancer Cytopathol 126(8):533-540. Cited by 1,
  • EA Dill, PM Dillon, TN Bullock, AM Mills. IDO Expression Across Breast Cancer Subtypes: An Assessment of 242 Primary and 39 Metastatic Cases. Mod Pathol 31(10) 1513-22.
  • AM Mills, S Zadeh, SC Modesitt, KL Ring. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in endometrial cancer: a targetable mechanism of immune resistance in mismatch repair-deficient and intact endometrial carcinomas. Mod Pathol 2018:31(8):1282-1290.
  • JY Ju, AM Mills, MS Mahadevan, J Fan, SH Culp, MH Thomas, HP Cathro. Universal Lynch syndrome screening should be performed in all upper tract urothelial carcinomas. Am J Surg Pathol 2018;42(9):1216-1229.
  • S Dasa, G Diakova, R Suzuki, AM Mills, MF Gutknecht, A Klibanov, JK Slack-Davis, KA Kelly. Plectin-targeted lisosomes enhance the therapeutic efficacy of a PARP inhibitor in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Theronostics 8(10):2782-98.
  • KA Knapp, ES Pires, SJ Adair, A Mandal, AM Mills, WC Olson, CL Slingluff, JT Parsons, TW Bauter, TN Bullock, JC Herr. Evaluation of SAS1B as a target for antibody-drug conjugate therapy in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. Oncotarget 2018:9(10):8972-84.
  • AM Mills, JD Coppock, BC Willis, MH Stoler. HPV E6/E7 mRNA in situ hybridization in the diagnosis of cervical low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL). Am J Surg Pathol 2018; 42(2):192-200.
  • AM Mills, EA Dill, CA Moskaluk, J Dziegielewski, TN Bullock, PM Dillon. The relationship between mismatch repair deficiency and PD-L1 expression in breast carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol 2018;42(2):183-191.
  • S Mukhopadhyay; MD Feldman; E Abels; R Ashfaq; S Beltaifa; NG Cacciabeve; HP Cathro.; L Cheng; K Cooper; GE Dickey; RM Gill; RP Heaton Jr; R Kerstens; GM Lindberg.; RK Malhotra; JW Mandell; ED Manlucu; AM Mills; SE Mills; CA Moskaluk; M Nelis; DT Patil; CG Przybycin; JP Reynolds.; BP Rubin; MH Saboorian; M Salicru; MA Samols; CD Sturgis; KO Turner; MR Wick; JY Yoon; P Zhao; CR Taylor. Whole slide imaging versus microscopy for primary diagnosis in surgical pathology: A multicenter blinded randomized noninferiority study of 1992 cases (Pivotal study). Am J Surg Pathol. 2018;42(1):39-52.
  • AM Mills, S Gradecki, R Blackwell, CA Moskaluk, J Mandell, SE Mills, H Cathro. Diagnostic efficiency in digital pathology: A comparison of optical vs. digital assessment in 510 surgical pathology cases. Am J Surg Pathol 2018;42(1):53-59.
  • AM Mills, AS Champeaux. Financial health & the pathology trainee: Fiscal prevention, diagnosis, and targeted therapy for young physicians. Arch Path Lab Med 2018;142(1):12-15.
  • S Zadeh, L Duska, AM Mills. Androgen receptor expression in endometrial carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Pathol 2018:37(2):167-173.
  • B Willis, EA Sloan, KA Atkins, MH Stoler, AM Mills. Mismatch repair status and PD-L1 Expression in Ovarian and Endometrial Clear Cell Carcinomas. Mod Pathol 2017;30(11):1622-1632.
  • AM Mills, C Gottlieb, KL Ring. PD-L1 Pitfalls: Emphasizing the importance of membranous localization and correlation with tumor cell and macrophage distributions. Gyn Oncology Reports 2017;20:135-136.
  • WD Baker, SR Pierce, AM Mills, PA Gehrig, LR Duska. Non-operative management of atypical endometrial hyperplasia and grade 1 endometrial cancer with levonorgestrel intrauterine device in medically ill post-menopausal women. Gynecol Oncol 2017;146(1):34-38.
  • AM Mills, DC Dirks, M Poulter, SE Mills, MH Stoler. HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA in situ hybridization validation against PCR, DNA in situ hybridization, and p16 immunohistochemistry in 102 samples of cervical, vulvar, anal, and head and neck neoplasia. Am J Surg Pathol 2017;41(5):607-615.
  • EA Dill, AA Gru, KA Atkins, ME Moore, LA Friedman, TN Bullock, JV Cross, PM. Dillon, AM Mills. PD-L1 expression and intratumoral heterogeneity across breast cancer subtypes and stages: An assessment of 245 primary and 40 metastatic tumors. Am J Surg Pathol. 2017 Mar;41(3):334-342.
  • EA Sloan˚ KL Ring, B Willis, SC Modesitt, AM Mills. PD-L1 expression in mismatch repair deficient endometrial carcinomas, including Lynch syndrome-associated and MLH1 promoter hypermethylated Tumors. Am J Surg Pathol 2017;41(3):326-333.
  • CE Gottlieb˚ AM Mills, JV Cross, KL Ring. Tumor-associated macrophage expression of PD-L1 in implants of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma: A comparison of matched primary and metastatic tumors. Gynecol Oncol 2017;144(3):607-612.
  • AM Mills, C Paquette, T Terzic, PE Castle, MH Stoler. CK7 immunohistochemistry as a predictor of CIN1 progression: A retrospective study of patients from the quadrivalent HPV vaccine trials. Am J Surg Pathol 2017; 41(2):143-152.
  • EA Sloan, CA Moskaluk, AM Mills. Mucinous Differentiation with tumor infiltrating lymphocytes is a feature of sporadically methylated endometrial carcinomas. Int J Gynecol Pathol 2017; 36(3):205-216.
  • AM Mills, M Policarpio-Nicholas, A Agaimy, MR Wick, SE Mills. Sclerosing microcystic adenocarcinoma of the head and neck mucosa: A neoplasm closely resembling microcystic adnexal carcinoma. Head Neck Pathol 2016;10(4):501-508
  • AM Mills, C Gottlieb, S Wendroth, C Brenin, KA Atkins. Apocrine Carcinomas Represent a Distinct, Androgen Receptor-Positive Clinicopathologic Subset of Triple-Negative Breast Cancers. Am J Surg Pathol 2016; 40(8):1109-16.
  • C Paquette, AM Mills, MH Stoler. Predictive value of cytokeratin 7 immunohistochemistry in cervical low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion as a marker for risk of progression to a high-grade lesion. Am J Surg Pathol 2016; 40(2):236-43.
  • AM Mills, EA Sloan˚, M Thomas, et al. Clinicopathologic comparison of Lynch Syndrome-associated and “Lynch-like” endometrial carcinomas identified on universal screening using mismatch repair protein immunohistochemistry. Am J Surg Pathol 2016; 40(2):155-165.
  • X Guo, VY Jo, AM Mills, S Zhu, et al. Clinically relevant molecular subtypes in leiomyosarcoma. Clin Cancer Res 2015; 21(15):3501-11.
  • AA Shah, AM Mills, AR Nichols, MH Stoler. The Pap smear caught it: Harmonizing the findings of an abnormal pap smear and a right ovarian mass. Diagnostic Cytopathology 2015; 43(12):1039-41.
  • AM Mills, C Paquette, PE Castle, MH Stoler. The risk stratification by p16 immunostaining of CIN1 biopsies: A retrospective study of patients from the quadrivalent HPV Vaccine trials. Am J Surg Pathol 2015 39(5):611-7.
  • AM Mills, S Liou, JM Ford et al. Lynch Syndrome screening should be considered for all patients with newly diagnosed endometrial cancer. Am J Surg Pathol 2014 38(11):1501-9.
  • J Keim-Malpass, AM Mills, S Showalter. Malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast: a case study. Clin J Oncol Nurs, 2014; 18(5):595-7.
  • B Meyer, AM Mills, CM Gaskin. Extraosseous Gaucher cell deposition without adjacent bone involvement. Skeletal Radiol 2014, 43(10):1495-8.
  • AM Mills, M Meyers-Needham, RD LeGallo et al. From Slide Sets to Sound Bites: Teaching and Learning Pathology in the Digital Age. Journal of the American Society of Cytopathology 2014,3(4):183-7.
  • AM Mills, FP Guo, AP Copland et al. A Comparison of CMV Detection in Gastrointestinal Mucosal Biopsies Using Immunohistochemistry and PCR Performed on Formalin-fixed, Paraffin-embedded Tissue. Am J Surg Pathol, July 2013;37(7):995-1000.
  • AM Mills, A Ly, JK McKenney, et al. Cell Cycle Regulatory Markers in Uterine Atypical Leiomyoma and Leiomyosarcoma: Immunohistochemical Study of 68 Cases with Clinical Follow-up. Am J Surg Pathol 2013; 37(5):634-42.
  • A Ly, AM Mills, Balzar BA, et al. Atypical Leiomyomas of the Uterus: A Clinicopathologic Study of 51 Cases. Am J Surg Pathol 2013;37(5):643-9.
  • AM Mills, R Balasubramaniam, TA Longacre, et al. Lab-developed L1 sequencing and type-specific, real-time PCR for the detection and typing of human papillomaviruses in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. Arch Path Lab Med 2012; 137(1):50-4.
  • AM Mills, S Liou, CS Kong, et al. Are Women with Endocervical Adenocarcinoma at Risk for Lynch Syndrome? Evaluation of 101 Cases Including Unusual Subtypes and Lower Uterine Segment Tumors. Int J Gynecol Pathol 2012; 31(5):463-9.
  • AM Mills, AH Beck, N Pourmand, et al. Evaluation of ProExC as a Prognostic Marker in Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinomas. Am J Surg Pathol 2012; 36(8):1158-64.
  • MJ Fontaine, AM Mills, S Weiss, et al. How we treat: Risk mitigation for ABO-incompatible plasma in platelet pheresis products. Transfusion 2012;52(10):2081-5.
  • AM Mills, AH Beck, Montgomery KD, et al. Expression of subtype-specific Group 1 leiomyosarcoma markers in a wide variety of sarcomas by gene expression analysis and immunohistochemistry. Am J Surg Pathol 2011; 35(4):583-9.
  • AM Mills, JK Karamchandani, H Vogel, TA Longacre. Endocervical fibroblastic malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (neurofibrosarcoma): Report of a novel entity possibly related to endocervical CD34 fibrocytes Am J Surg Pathol 2011; 35:404-412.
  • AM Mills, ME Ward, TP Heyl et al. Parasitism as a potential contributor to massive clam mortality at the Blake Ridge Diapir methane-hydrate seep. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 2005; 85: 1489-1497.